(Courtesy of Talisman Fine Art)
If you wish to make contact with any questions or comments I would be very happy to hear from you.
My second novel 'Camille and the Raising of Eros' is now published (May 2019)
I would also be more than pleased to let you know of any further publications. I have some articles and also lectures in mind (one lecture/article is included further down), so please feel free to leave your E-mail address.
Content of this website:
1) 'Camille and the Raising of Eros' (my new and second novel) - The synopsis - Please just scroll down for this.
2) 'The Strange Case of Madeleine Seguin' (my first novel) - The environmental and cultural background to the novel and a close up of some of the characters - Please scroll down for this.
3) 'Easy it is for a god to take all' - An article on the amorous and often calamitous interactions of the classical gods, with many images. - Click here to go to this section
4) Talks and lectures that I am scheduled to give and which I am ready to present to interested groups and societies. - Please click here for my talks and lectures
CAMILLE AND THE RAISING OF EROS
Spain, 1920s. The lives of three Carmelite nuns intersect and develop through a period of intense experience. In their personal histories there is great contrast, from the artistic exuberance of Paris in 'La Belle Époque' to slavery in Africa, but a past element is shared that has deeply affected each one. This novel is a striking exploration of personal history aided by the spirited observations of an eccentric French psychoanalyst. It is also an emotive reflection upon the agony of maternal loss and betrayal, and upon love.
William Rose adeptly guides the narrative through Africa, Spain and France in the early decades of the 20th century, as the characters reveal their histories and discover the destinies that await them.
Link for Purchasing (Please click here)
THE STRANGE CASE OF MADELEINE SEGUIN
My novel 'The Strange Case of Madeleine Seguin' was published by Karnac Books as part of their Karnac Library series and was released in June 2016. It has been reprinted (2019) and is now published by Sphinx, an imprint of Aeon Books (formally Karnac).
Link for purchasing (From the publisher - Please click here).
Link for purchasing (From Waterstones online - Please click here).
First of all, in case you have not read the novel and are wondering whether to, here is the synopsis as printed on the rear cover of the book:
'It is Paris in the 1880s and the century is in its final decadent throes as it moves towards the 'fin de siecle'. New scientific ideas are countered by a resurgent interest in the practice of magic, whilst in the arts the Symbolists are exploring the strangeness of dreams and the imagination.
In the Salpêtrière Hospital, hundreds of female patients are suffering from the curious malady of 'hysteria'. Many of these are being treated by hypnosis under the regime of the celebrated and charismatic Professor J-M Charcot. One such patient is Madeleine Seguin, a young woman whose past is a mystery and who evokes a fascination and possessiveness in those who come close to her.
Besides the doctors, Madeleine will encounter a young Symbolist artist, a Catholic priest, a powerful aristocrat, and most dangerously, those practising the darkest aspects of the occult, each of whom will try to save ot corrupt her. She must survive them all if she is to shape her own destiny.'
My aim here, as follows, is to offer more information about the story. This is for anyone who may be interested, and in the hope too, that for those who have read the novel and enjoyed it, there can be some increased pleasure in receiving extra details about the characters and the environment in which those characters find themselves.
Some of the main protagonists did indeed exist and it was important for me to have researched their lives and their work as well as possible, to at least know in myself, that my attempts to capture something of their essence were authentic. But it is a work of fiction and so liberties were taken for which I only feel a modicum of guilt. These lives, after all, were lived long ago in the 19th Century. And as well, some of the main characters are purely fictional. However, research was also needed for them and though as individuals they may not have actually existed, the professions and artistic styles that they pursued certainly did.
The Environment. Paris at the 'Fin de Siècle'
The main bulk of the narrative is set in Paris in the 1880s as the century nears its end - The Fin de Siècle. I have always found that phrase to be exciting and evocative, with an interesting hint of the sinister. As the 19th Century prepared to die it uneasily and suspiciously eyed its brash new successor and the responses of the collective unconscious became expressed within society and through its arts and spiritual pre-occupations. These latter two figure strongly in the narrative. The disturbance was often manifested in the visions of those artists of the time who came to be collectively known as the Symbolists. They have become less chronicled than the Impressionists, partly perhaps because their vision was far more subjective and sometimes troubling. They have an important (and I hope, provocative) presence in the narrative along with their often bizarre literary fellows, the Symbolist writers and poets. And at the same time, the certainty of religious tradition was being challenged: on the one hand, by the newly confident predictions of science, and on the other, from a vastly different source, the revival of magic and occult practice. The very darkest aspects of the occult also play a significant part in Madeleine's story.
Frantisek Kupka - 'The Black Idol (Resistance)'. 1903. ( Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France). Kupka in, his Symbolist period, moved to Paris in the 1990s.
The Salpêtrière Hospital
C.1900 Service des Archives de l'Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris
The Salpêtrière Hospital exists as a huge and rather austere building in the south east of Paris, quite close to Le Jardin des Plantes and in this modern day, Gare d'Austerlitz. It is impressive in size and architecture having been developed from a building that was originally used to make and store gunpowder. Hence the name, which is from the French for our 'saltpetre', a gunpowder ingredient. Its next use was to store human beings. Louis X1V, the so called 'Sun King', wished for there to be no more flotsam and jetsam ruining the immaculate beauty and perfection of his city and decreed in 1656 that there should be " ...an end to beggary and idleness, as being the source of all disorder". Thus, any that could possibly cause offence were rounded up; this was a collection of vagabonds, vagrants, beggars, mad people, and it would seem - par excellance, prostitutes, but with no distinction between the genuinely deprived and hapless and the genuinely wicked. So, all herded up, with the men destined for the Bicêtre, and the Salpêtrière to begin its feminine associations by housing the women. There are terrible tales of the overcrowding and the cruel suffering. Out of the total population of 400,000 who lived in Paris, 40,000, one tenth, were cleared away and imprisoned and 10,000 of these were interred into the Salpêtrière. The mad created a special problem that no one had any idea about and little wish to solve and the remedy for those truly demented was to chain them to the walls. It was said that those unfortunate enough to be passing the building could hear the screams of the captives as they were bitten by the rats.
It is an indicative fact of the time that, though the awfulness was housed within and hidden from public view, the King had commissioned the architect Libéral Bruant to create, on the site of the old factory, a fine building within which to hide it. This is the structure, expanded in 1684 which remains today. In 1669, soon after the original commission for the building, Bruant was also tasked with building its chapel, the Chapelle St-Louis-de-la-Salpêtrière. This is big, large enough for 1000 persons and it's huge, dark dome looms above as the main, central building is approached. It is impressive, both outside and in, with the high altar placed within a central octagonal rotunda, and serving as the meeting place for four equal sized wedges of naves, which could keep the inmates segregated into distinct groups. I have visited the chapel on two occasions and on both, the interior space was being prepared for art exhibitions.
There were appalling events that occurred at the Salpêtrière on the night of the 3rd September 1792 and through the following day. The novel, though it is mainly set a hundred years after, begins with a dramatised account of those events. They were part of the 'September Massacres' that were taking place in Paris and are truly shocking. A description is also given by the fictional Jaques Lamond in a letter to his Mother (Chapter 4 of the novel). The French Revolution was three years underway and a mob descended on the Salpêtrière. The accounts that have come down to us of their intentions are somewhat contradictory with references to the mob's wish to free the prostitutes, but also their deluded purpose of weeding out inmates who might be counter to the revolution. Given the nature of the Institution it was hardly likely to house counter-revolutionaries! The next day over thirty women were put on trial and sadistically killed. In the novel I treated these events as part of a thread of evil that works its way into the lives of the story's characters nearly a century later, with Madeleine potentially, the ultimate victim.
Dr Philippe Pinel at the Salpêtrière. 1795. Tony Robert Fleury.
Reform began in the early 19th Century and particularly through the revolutionary work and influence of Philippe Pinel, considered by some to be the 'father of modern psychiatry'. He became chief physician of the Salpêtrière, by then described as a 'Hospice'. He is credited for striking off the chains and freeing the insane women. Pinel actually listened, took notes and observed, and instituted a method of management for the insane, referred to as 'moral treatment'. At this time, the Salpêtrière was a massive and bizarre instutution with 7000 female patients, many of them elderly, and comprised its own village, even containing a bustling market.
The next figure of great significance was Professor Jean-Martin Charcot himself, who plays such an important part in Madeleine's story and more details about him are given below in the descriptions of the novel's personnel. He was the predominant neurologist of the time and became the Director of the Hospital and famous for his investigative work in the field of Hysteria, in which hypnosis became a diagnostic and experimental tool. His public lectures, using hysterical patients and hypnotism, became cultural events that attracted the intelligensia and also sensation-seekers from around the world. They were delivered in the hospital's large lecture theatre and gave Charcot the opportunity to display his brilliance as a scientist and clinician and his undoubted skill as a charismatic performer. This is avidly and enthusiastically described by both the artist Louis Martens (Chapter 3) and the young neurologist Jacques Lamond (Chapter 4), though their main points of interest differ considerably - the artist and the scientist.
Today the L'hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière is a teaching hospital and one of the largest hospitals in Europe.
Gustave Moreau 'Song of Songs' (Cantique des Cantiques) 1893. Watercolour on paper. Ohara Museum of Art.
Perhaps a few words about 'Symbolist Art' would be useful for anyone who is not familiar with the term. It is not as well known an artistic movement as 'Impressionism', which was happening roughly at the same time, though I believe that it carries just as much importance in the history of visual art. Anyway, as will be apparent, I like it and it has been a pleasurable interest for me, one that I had the opportunity to share in the novel.
Symbolism developed out of Romanticism and added an edge to it. The image above is by Gustave Moreau, a late work by an early Symbolist who is sometimes referred to as 'the father' of the movement. The use of the imagination, in a subjective way, is perhaps this art's main ingredient and so it can suggest dream or even trance. It can be strange, spiritual, have an arcadian beauty, but can also be hellish. It often derives its subject matter from mythology or poetry. This loosely gathered movement grew throughout the second half of the 19th Century. At the time in which the novel is set, mainly 1885/6, the visual artists and their literary counterparts were just about to be given their official title as 'Symbolists' through an article in 'Paris Match'. Until then, their art had often been referred to as 'Decadent'. That term could usefully apply sometimes, but it fails to properly include the idealists and those motivated spiritually and aesthetically. It can throw more light on Symbolism if a comparison is made to the work and aims of the Impressionists. The defining difference is that the main preoccupation of the Impressionists was with what the eye sees as it observes the outside world. By contrast, the Symbolists followed the vision of the inner eye. Odilon Redon, one of the most noteable Symbolists said,
“I refused to board the Impressionist ship because I found the ceiling too low. . . .[the Impressionists] cultivated art solely on the visual field, and in a way closed it off from what goes beyond that and what can give the humblest sketches, even the shadows, the light of spirituality. I mean a kind of emanation that takes hold of our spirit and escapes all analysis.”
—Artist Odilon Redon, To Myself: Notes on Life, Art and Artists, trans. Mira Jacob and Jeanne L. Wasserman (New York: George Brazillier, 1986), 110.
Odilon Redon 'Reflection'. Pastel on paper. Private Collection
And the great Symbolist, Paul Gauguin referred to the great Impressionist, Claude Monet as... "just an eye", though he aptly qualified this by continuing, "but God, what an eye!"
This art of the Symbolists, with its new and fresh emphases on subjectivity and imagination was part of a remarkable change in the arts. It was a marker of a time when the exploration of the inner world was becoming not only a feature of the arts, but also of science - as Charcot explored the symptoms of the hysteric and his student Freud discovered that those symptoms derived from the mind and not the body.
Some are fictional. Some certainly existed, but of course their lives have been appropriated for the sake of a story. I have tried not to do any of them too great an injustice. Their lives were very interesting and significant anyway, before I got to them. I thoroughly enjoyed my research, which still goes on.
I owe it to Madeleine that I should not try to describe or define anything about her that is apart from the story as a whole. So I must leave it there. With the others it is easier! -
They are in no particular order - please just scroll down.
Father Pierre Lambert
A fictional character who is Chaplain to the Salpêtrière Hospital in the years 1874-1886. His base is the Chapelle Saint-Louis de la Salpêtrière, the large hospital church that is described above in the Salpêtrière section. There would certainly have been a priest resident at the chapel and the hospital at that time.
Lambert is a deeply religious character who plays a substantial part in Madeleine's story. Driven by his love of Madeleine, his intense feelings about good and evil, with a crusader like hatred of the latter, his own destiny becomes an additional feature of the story.
A fictional character. Louis is a very enthusiastic and aspiring young artist in the Symbolist mould who, like significant others of the time, gravitated to Paris from Belgium. He haunts the cafés, bars and theatres looking for stimulation, excitement, and for inclusion into the artistic and intellectual élite, the special groups and soirées that held court in the cultural environment of the city. I think he tends to feel a little superior to his artist friend Marcel who he corresponds with and who lives in the country and paints landscapes. He of course becomes utterly smitten with Madeleine, before he even knows her, and is overwhelmed by his need for her as his muse. It is in the fabled tradition of the romanticism of the artist. It makes me think of the Pre-Raphaelite and early English Symbolist, Dante Gabriel Rossetti who, I sometimes think, died from a surfeit of the muse.
Louis is drawn, against his will, to the more macabre elements of Symbolism and their associations with magic. He actually declares that, for him, it is the more ideal and arcadian visions that appeal, particularly the art of Puvis de Chavannes.
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, 'Summer' or 'The Harvest'. 1873. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
A fictional character. Lamond is a young neurologist studying with Charcot who is very idealistic and excited by his work and new discoveries. He too becomes fascinated by Madeleine, but in a very different way to Louis, and, with a struggle, keeps things in perspective. Charcot sees his potential and allows him to be a young member of his circle. Eventually he entrusts him with the treatment of Madeleine, which, at that early stage of its development, was a rudimentary psychoanalysis. Jacques is studying with Charcot at the same time as another aspiring youngish neurologist, Sigmund Freud, and is fortunate enough to strike up an acqaintance!
Jean Martin Charcot
1825-1893. A famed and heralded neurologist, clinician and pathologist who plays a fundamental role in Madeleine's story. She is a patient at his Salpêtrière at a time when he was truly the 'Napoleon of the Neurosis' and when his public lectures were a 'must see' amongst, not just the scientifically curious, but the cultural élite of France and beyond. Charcot settled in the Salpêtrière institution in 1862 and ultimately became its Director until his death. In 1882 he established the neurological clinic there and he is best known to the lay public for his researches into the malady, oft diagnosed at the time, of Hysteria and for using hypnotism as its investigative tool. In fact this was not by any means his only interest, and amongst other achievements he was pioneering in his research into multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
But it is the Hysteria connection which is the one for the novel. And for Madeleine, who becomes a special patient of his and a subject for his public demonstrations with hypnotism. There were in fact such patients who became favoured subjects, and well known to the crowds that frequented the Salpêtrière Friday public lectures.
Charcot enjoyed the arts and was known to be a gifted draughtsman himself, something that, in the story, puts the artist, young Louis Martens, into a position of favour. Charcot's gifts of observation in his drawings can probably be linked to his celebrated brilliance when observing his patients and diagnosing their symptoms.
He and his wife were also known and desired for their Tuesday evening soirées at their sumptuous residence in the Boulevard St Germain and their guest list included those at the height of their fields in all areas of society. He was also adored by many of his students including Sigmund Freud who forever kept a print of Charcot on his consulting room wall and who recalled that Charcot had taught him that,
"...theories, no matter how pertinent they are, cannot eradicate the existence of facts".
Portrait of Félicien Rops. Engraving by François-Eugene Burney. 1887. Gift of Michael. G. Wilson. LACMA.
1833-1898. Of Belgian nationality, Rops, originally a satirical illustrator, moved to Paris and became one of the best known and sometimes infamous of the artists known first as Decadents, and later as Symbolists. Decadent could often be applied to his subject matter, but as my novel has the writer Mallarmé says at his soirée of 'Mardistes' in Chapter 12, though Rops would often trawl through the lower reaches of Parisian society for his female subjects, he did so ..."with a disdain for any society that can so easily accept such misfortune". Nevertheless, the subject matter for Rops was often strongly sexual and increasingly admixed with the macabre and the devilish so, along with his reputation as a skilled lover, it was easy to imagine him liaising with the Countess de Bolvoir.
He is best known for his print making and illustrative work. He designed the cover illustration for the Symbolist novel, 'Le vice suprème', written by the equally elaborate personage of the Sâr Joséphin Péladan, who is referred to in the novel and who also makes a 'cameo' appearance, (Chapter 15).
Rops was known for his charm, his sexual attractiveness, his ability as a raconteur and his capacity for memorising a vast amount of facts. His marriage suffered considerably and he spent much of the later period of his life in a 'ménage à trois' with two sisters.
Félicien Rops. 'La tentation de Saint Antoine'. 1878. Pastel. Bibliotèque royale de Belgique.
The Countess de Bolvoir
A fictional character. Could someone such as she really exist? Well, perhaps - just. Many of the Symbolist artists and writers were anxiously in thrall to the 'femme fatale'. And the occult revival was on, with its darker side. In that way she exists as a creature of the time.
'Herodias' (The mother of Salome). Etching C.1880 by Leopold Flameng. After the oil painting by Benjamin Constant 'Queen Herodiade'.
Portrait of Joris-Karl Huysmans by Jean-Louis Forain C1878. Versailles, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon
1848-1907. Huysmans originally wrote in the 'realist' manner influenced by Emil Zola, but his novel 'À rebours' (Against Nature) was a spectacular departure from Zola's 'naturalism' and became the 'Decadent' or 'Symbolist' novel par excellence. Several references are made to it in Madeleine's story and also to Huysman's central character, Duc Jean Floressas des Esseintes. This character is often equated with a celebrated dandy of the time, Robert, Comte de Montesquiou-Fezensac, but is surely a projection of Huysman's own pre-occupations and fantasies. Des Esseintes lives in an obsessive world of aesthetics, all exquisitely refined and independent of the course of ordinary life and of nature. It is against the natural processes of things, and has an intense subjectivity and an enforced refinement of aesthetic sensibilities that leaves little room for anything, or indeed anyone, else. Unsurprisingly Des Esseintes lives alone, apart from an ill-fated attempt at having a pet tortoise with a gold painted, jewel encrusted, shell. The life-style defies normal relations and engagement with the world and consequently, Des Essientes suffers from neurotic symptoms, 'neurasthenia', hypochondria and, one can ascertain, depression. His disgust for the natural processes of nature and his consequent perversity is well exemplified by his preference in creating a real flower that can be mistaken for an artificial one.
The incredible detail and the remarkable breadth and depth of knowledge of scientific and artistic processes displayed by Huysmans is quite staggering. For instance the minutiae of how to create a perfume - one of Des Esseintes' favourite obsessive past-times. He also enters into ecstatic descriptions of certain Symbolist artists and writers particularly Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, Félicien Rops, Paul Verlaine, and Stéphane Mallarmé. (Rops and Malarmé play significant parts in Madeleine's story). He floridly exemplifies a kind of 'fin de siècle' personality, torn between a modern world of scientific advancements with its positivism and the loss of religious certainties and more traditional values. Political and international uncertainties of the time also played their part.
Huysmans continued in the same vein with his novel La-Bas (Down There), which dealt with the late 19th Century occult revival in Paris and its darker side (as in my novel), though in later years he was to return to the Roman Catholic Church and in his novels and personal existence, deeply immerse himself in a Christian mystical life. He died of cancer in 1907 in terrible pain, which he is known to have endured with remarkable forbearance.
1842-1898. Mallarmé, though gaining a reputation in the 1880s as the most eminent poet in France, regularly endured poor health and financial worries. His financial affairs dogged his life and like J-K Huysmans, he had to endure the monotony of an 'ordinary' job to survive. For him it was teaching, a profession he was not successful at, especially given he was unwilling to do it in the first place. However from a modest dwelling, a small fourth floor flat in the Rue de Rome, he hosted one of the most sought after salons in Paris, attended by celebrated guests from the arts and society. As they were held on a Tuesday night, they were named after the French for that day 'Mardi' and the regular attendees were therefore 'Mardistes'. There, as the central attraction, his wit (he was a master of irony) and intellect could be celebrated. It was said that he held court as 'judge, jester and king'. Mallarmé was perhaps the most senior of the Symbolist writers and poets. There was frustration in respect to his own work as he had planned one special creation to encapsulate his aims and ideas. This never materialised to his own satisfaction. In 1883, Paul Verlaine wrote some articles about Mallarmé including excerpts from his poetry and included his view that the writer was at work on 'a book whose profundity will astonish people no less than its splendour will dazzle all, save the blind'. Around the same time, J-K Huysmans brought out his famous Symbolist novel 'À rebours' in which he described Mallarmé as one of the most exquisite poets of the age.
These publications created a new interest in the writer's work and a decade of ascendancy, with the soirées collecting eminent cultural names. Among the guests were: Huysmans himself, André Gide, Oscar Wilde, Paul Verlaine, Jean Moréas, Félix Fénéon, Édouard Dujardin, René Ghil, Gustave Kahn, Odilon Redon, Camille Mauclair, Henri de Régnier, Rainer Maria Rilke, W.B.Yeats, Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, James McNeill Whistler, Auguste Rodin - and others! To be suddenly so admired and a hero to younger poets and writers was a great incentive to Mallarmé who began producing work with a renewed verve.
In earlier years, Mallarmé counted Édouard Manet (1832-1883) as a special friend and the portrait that Manet made of him hung upon a wall in his home.
Mallarmé's poetic work is extremely difficult to translate into English. He was greatly influenced by the poetry of Charles Baudelaire and to try to understand Mallarmé's work it is useful to refer to Baudelaire's concept of 'musicality', something that is central to Symbolism. Symbolism relies on 'suggestion' rather than a literary meaning. Musicality describes the experience of one expression, or means of expression, suggesting another, so that words might evoke colours or the tonality and rhythms of music. Mallarmé, in his most ambitious works, played with the sounds and ambiguities of words and also their presentation, for instance their spacing, on the printed page.
Some of Mallarmés important works were: Hérodiade (begun in 1864 - though never completed), L'après-midi d'un faune (1876) (which inspired Claude Debussy's 'Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune' (1894)), Poésies 1887, Divagations 1897, Un coup de dés jamais n'abolira le hasard1897 ('A roll of the dice will never abolish chance').
Recommended reading: A Throw of the Dice, the Life of Stéphane Mallarmé by Gordon Millan. (Secker and Worburg, London 1994).
It is hardly surprising that the fictitious character in my novel, the ambitious Symbolist artist, Louis Martens, was delighted to have access to one of Mallarmé's Tuesday evenings. A chapter of the novel is devoted to that evening, with some of the main characters in Madeleine's story present.
To return to the top of William Rose's website, please click here:A warm welcome and thank you for visiting
But now on to something different: The following was originally one of my lectures (and sometimes still is). It is included here as an article.
"EASY IT IS FOR A GOD TO TAKE ALL"
In Titian's painting of the mythological tale of Bacchus and Ariadne we see Ariadne just after her abandonment on the island of Naxus. She has been left there by the man she loves, Theseus. His ship has gone and she appears to gesture after it, towards the blue horizon, but her outstretched arm also seems to be to ward off a fresh difficulty. The god Bacchus, with a full and debauched contingent has suddenly emerged and is already leaping from his chariot towards her.
Titian 'Bacchus and Ariadne' (1522-23). National Gallery, London.
This is a relatively early work by Titian. It has a peculiar staged quality to it, with each of the figures in their own little tableau, caught in a moment of elaborate and characteristic pose. Titian, quite faithfully here, refers to elements that could work up into a Dionysian orgiastic frenzy; the wild dancing, the clashing of the cymbals, the raw devouring of the ripped bodies of live animals, the wrestling with the writhing snake. The characters, so intent on their actions, seem strangely disconnected from each other. Except for Bacchus and Ariadne. He has seen her and immediately been smitten by her beauty and he is going to take what he wants as a matter of course - "Easy it is for a god to take all".
And in the depictions of the gods, this theme repeats elaborately and with great excess and exuberance. Exuberance for the winners at any rate - for "those who take all", and despair and the most appalling fates for the losers; those who are often but mortal, or merely semi-divine.
The gods lust and plot and scheme, with the meanest of scruples and the basest of motives. They are the players in dreams of wish-fulfilment and nightmares of retribution. They indulge in unbridled emotions and the rawest elemental experiences and in the tales of mythology, their course is relentless. Their relations to each other have a ruthless grandiosity, which yet should only be expected, as they are, after all, the gods. Their escapades may be imagined, but few would dare to enact them. The relations and deeds of the classical gods are florid expressions of matters to remain in the fantasy realm, whether conscious or unconscious, in the lives of ordinary human kind.
"Easy it is for a god to take all". In fact this story of Bacchus and Ariadne has one of the happier contents. They fall in love and wed and Bacchus gives Ariadne the sky as a wedding gift and takes Ariadne's golden and bejewled crown, (she is a princess, the daughter of Minos, King of Crete), and throws it into the heavens.
Ovid describes his actions thus -
.......He took her crown
And set it in the heavens to win her there
A star's eternal glory; and the crown
Flew through the soft light air and, as it flew Its gems were turned to gleaming fires, and still
Shaped as a crown their place in heaven they take
Between the Kneeler and him who grasps the Snake.
Bacchus knew just how to win the heart of a girl.
And so in astronomy the jewels of Ariadne's crown still glitter as the constellation Corona Borealis, The Northern Crown, located between "the Kneeler" - the constellation of Hercules, and "him who grasps the Snake" - the constellation of Serpens, the Serpent. Titian places the stars high in the sky above Ariadne at the top of the picture.
Bacchus, as the god of wine and of ecstasy, became a favourite of the artists of the Renaissance and beyond. Some of the greatest took the subject on with relish. If Bacchus himself is not included, then the scene will still be celebrated in his name as a Bacchanale with the participants, Bacchanals.
Nicolas Poussin. 'A Bacchanalian Revel Before a Statue of Pan' (1632-33). National Gallery, London.
Poussin seems to have thoroughly enjoyed painting his 'A Bacchanalian Revel Before a Term of Pan' from about 1633. (A 'term' is a word for a statue). Though the picture is of a wild affair, the composition is in fact very carefully constructed - to make an effective painting, and to convey a sense of rhythm and movement in keeping with the dance as its subject. The dancers circle and then seem to fall into the figure on the right. Poussin, though a painter of several uninhibited Bacchanalian revels, was, in his work, a meticulous planner of design.
The events occurring around the conception, birth and early life of Bacchus show features that are typical in the behaviour of the gods. The Greeks and the Romans were fascinated by the love lives of their deities. It is like the tabloid newspapers and modern day celebrities; or the small child's interest in the parents' bedroom. These gods were no responsible parental figures though, but libidinal creatures ruthlessly pursuing their desires and often incurring terrible emotional consequences.
Bacchus was the child born of the illicit affair between Jupiter, the King of the gods, and Semele, a mortal, the daughter of Cadmus of Thebes. Jupiter's wife Juno, knowing of their secret liaisons, decided she should act. She disguised herself as Semele's old nurse, visited her, and with poisonous intent festered in her mind uncertainties - Was Jupiter really the god he claimed to be?
The doubting Semele now had to have the surety of this. When she next saw her lover, catching him in an amorous moment of thoughtlessness, she extracted from him a promise, the promise of a favour, and Jupiter, in ardour ready to grant anything to his beloved, swore that he would. He was aghast at the request that followed. Semele wished him to appear before her in his true godlike state.
"Give me yourself in the same grace
As when your Juno holds you to her breast
In love's embrace."
Ovid describes Jupiter's response.
......He would have locked her lips;
Too late her words had hastened on their way.
He groaned: her wish could never be unwished.
His oath never unsworn.
In bitterest grief He soared ascending to the ethereal sky......
Possibly by Jacopo Tintoretto. 'Jupiter and Semele', about 1545. National Gallery, London.
Juno's trap had now been sprung. She knew what the consequences would be. Compelled by his oath Jupiter must now appear before the mortal in his godlike form, flaming and charged with thunderbolts.
Ted Hughes in his 'Tales from Ovid' describes it as:
The nuclear blast Of his naked impact
- And the consequence -
Her eyes opened wide, saw him
And burst into flame.
Then her whole body lit up
With the glare
That explodes the lamp -
In the painting attributed to the 16th Century Venetian, Tintoretto, Jupiter sweeps into Semele's chamber, smoking and blazing. Semele is seen in a fraction of a moment before her destruction, but the deep red curtains above her bed already purport the imminent fire. The floor glows red and even outside the chamber a volcano stands on the horizon and the sky flushes.
We can see from the figure of Semele that she is already pregnant and this infant to be is Bacchus, her child with Jupiter. In the moment before she dies Jupiter snatches Bacchus from her womb and places him within his own thigh from where he will later be born, becoming the 'twice-born god'.
The gods are serial philanderers and Jupiter the most promiscuous of them all. There is a marked quality though to Jupiter's amorous adventures. The King of the gods is very worried about upsetting the wife. And with good cause; Juno is capable of a furious and revengeful jealousy - the burning and consuming force that reduced poor Semele to ashes. But Juno's propensity for indomitable pursuit and craft in matters of revenge can only really compare in proportion to Jupiter's cunning and relentless pursuit in matters of seduction. Both are phenomenal in their ingenuity in these dramas of provocation and retaliation; all this gratefully received as narrative potential by the artists.
The freedom to paint such libidinal and, in fact, such human activities, comprised one of those rich streams of new possibility that brought the great surge of vitality into and through the centuries of the Renaissance. The artists reached back for their inspirations, parting the sea of asceticism of the middle ages, to draw from classical culture, and the profane was allowed to mingle with the sacred.
And here was prodigious talent, and a new vitality of technique that could make possible a fit between the mythological subject matter and the two-dimensional works that sought to reproduce it. The imagination of the artist was now freer to encounter the archetypal stimulations and robust narratives from the Greek and Roman tales and to do so with relish.
Jacopo Tintoretto. 'The Origin of the Milky Way', 1875-80. National Gallery, London.
In Tintoretto's painting 'The Origin of the Milky Way', Jupiter places his illegitimate baby son Hercules, born of a mortal woman, on the breast of a sleeping Juno, so that he may feed from her and thus gain immortality. She wakes and in the ensuing commotion her milk squirts up into the sky, where it creates the stars of the Milky Way. If it were not for the fact that at some stage of its life the picture has had a section cut off from the bottom, we would see that the milk also spurted downwards to create the lilies of the field.
Art was now existing on a grand scale and it required suitably rich sources for its material. In a sense it had always been narrative in having at least alluded to a story. Even a Christian iconographic image, with all its timeless suggestion for a moment of meditation, has, behind it, a story. And in the Renaissance, narratives remained as the main source, but now, as well, they were secular and could thus turn towards the tales that were unredeemed, still full of ripe fruit; the myths that could now be tasted without attrition.
It was all there in the myths, ready to be mined. All the vicissitudes of human emotion; the predicaments, the conflicts, the troubled moral conflagrations, the ambitions and triumphs, the failures, the virtues and the sins, for the mythological gods behave as caricatures of humans.
And art, now less tied to religious patronage, had the confidence to go there and artists a greater sense of independence and individuality that indeed required this new scope of subject matter for its expression.
It was in the 1400s that the mythological subject really emerged and as something to be commissioned by a patron. The Florentine Botticelli was one of the earlier painters in this way to evoke the classical gods and so to paint poetry and romance and Botticelli is one of the most poetic of them all. This poetry might even be helped by a little gothic demureness that plays teasingly with the Renaissance sensuality which is also such a part of his vision.
Sandro Botticelli. 'Venus and Mars', about 1485. National Gallery, London.
The painting 'Venus and Mars' from around 1485 is a relatively uncomplex and playful allegory about the interplay between love and aggression, war and peace, men and women; 'women are from Venus, men from Mars. The two have made love and now a very comfortably poised, dressed and serene looking Venus reclines upon her red cushion, eyes open and awake whilst a still unclothed Mars is deep in post-coital slumber.
There is playful intent in this depiction by the artist and he allows the impish little satyr children to be instruments of his humour as they play with the great god of war's weapons and armour and even mock him by blowing in his ear through a conch shell.
The two gods have come together in love, but they now lie opposite each other, a reversion to their inheritant dualism. In the irony of the moment, the goddess of love seems far more powerful than the god of war. Boticelli treats the subject with tenderness.
Peter Paul Rubens. 'Samson and Delilah', about 1609-10. National Gallery, London.
Rubens about 125 years later in one of his greatest paintings, from 1609 or 10, took up this same male - female theme, displaying it through the biblical tale of Samson and Delilah and with a sharper point. Again the post-coital vulnerability of the man, here about to have his locks shawn by his enemies the Philistines and so to loose his magical strength and eventually his life.
The picture comes from a very exciting and relatively early period of Ruben's work from the years after his return from Italy where he had studied the Classical and Renaissance Masters.
The positioning of the figures in Botticelli's painting, with its consequent wide, rectangular shape, probably also suited the commissioning of the work; it is likely to have been painted to form and decorate the Spalliera (backboard) of a chest. This would have gone into a wealthy home. The new art patrons were successful and moneyed; men and women of the world and they now wanted decorative works, more racy, more worldly, more voluptuous, for their homes and indeed, for their bedrooms.
In the next century, particularly in Venice, a centre for individuality and independence, wealthy secular patronage, intellectual enquiry, artistic ambition and a new commerciality combined to promote huge canvases that told tall tales. Titian was the model for the wealthy, successful painter, favoured by royalty, aristocracy, rich businessmen, and still too, by the church. This was for his skills, but as well there now emerges the glamour of the artist and the cultural 'cred' of being in his circle. Titian was fully a celebrity.
So the opulent colouring of his 'Bacchus and Ariadne', Bacchus's confidence and flourish, the exotic props and pagan ribaldry amongst his train of followers, these express well the splendour and energy of the High Renaissance.
Bacchus, Dionysus in the Greek, was then, the offspring born of Jupiter's philandering with the mortal Semele. Later he was to become elevated to full god status. We have already seen the results of Juno's wrathful response to the discovery of the affair. It is a repeated theme.
It may seem rather a surprise that Jupiter, powerful enough to be King of the gods, should need to behave so surreptitiously; sneaking about, often in the most elaborate of disguises, in order to win the love of those lesser gods, nymphs, and humans who caught his ever roving eye. Also, of course, to avoid the ever-watchful eye of Juno.
And for the painters of the voluptuous and of high drama, these covert romantic missions of seduction, with their intricate fractures of consequence, created subjects to describe with relish, both as objects of delectation and arousal and also sometimes as more sombre meditations upon the aftermath.
Antonio Allegri da Correggio. 'Jupiter and Io', about 1530. Kunsthistoriches Museum of Vienna, Austria.
Io was the daughter of Inacus, a river deity. In Ovid's tale Io, returning from her father's stream, caught Jupiter's eye. He propositions her and she runs. He stops and catches her by surrounding her with a dark cloud and under cover of this he ravishes her.
The scene is portrayed in one of the regrettably few, imaginative mythological works painted by Corregio, from Parma. It comes from a series of four - 'The Loves of Jove', commissioned by the Duke of Mantua and completed around 1530. Corregio is truly one of the Renaissance greats, he can even rival Titian, and he brings into the depiction of these torrid and sensual tales his own special lyrical sensitivity, and an awareness too that sexual pleasure is something for both partners.
Here Io is shown as a most willing participant and Jupiter, cleverly and effectively painted by the artist, is not just covered by the cloud, he is the cloud.
Returning to the story, Juno had noticed the change in the daylight. These are Ovid's words:
Juno meanwhile observed the land of Argos
And wondered that the floating clouds had wrought
In the brightest day the darkness of the night.
These were no river mists! No clouds like these
The humid earth exhaled! She looked around
To find her husband; well she knew his tricks,
So often had caught him in his escapades;
And searched the sky in vain. "If I'm not wrong",
She thought, I'm being wronged", and gliding down
From heaven's height she lighted on the earth
And bade the clouds disperse........
Jupiter, fractionally ahead of the game, had just taken an evasive step and turned Io into a white heifer, still beautiful, but nevertheless, disguised now as a beautiful cow.
Pieter Lastman. 'Juno Discovering Jupiter with Io', 1618. National Gallery, London.
Pieter Lastman in his 'Juno Discovering Jupiter with Io', painted in 1618, captures the exact moment. Juno has arrived and made quite an entrance, accompanied by two of her special birds, the peacock, though you may notice something unusual about them in the picture. In between Juno and Jupiter is the figure of Deceit.
Juno, well aware of trickery, but tricky enough herself, praised the cow and asked Jupiter if he would allow this beautiful beast to be a gift for her. Ovid describes Jupiter's anguished conflict:
............What should he do?
Too cruel to give his darling! Not to give -
Suspicious; shame persuades but love dissuades.
Love would have won; but then - if he refused
His wife (his sister too) so slight a gift,
A cow, it well might seem no cow at all!
So Jupiter, for fear of his wife's wrath accedes and the white bull Io now becomes Juno's possession. Such punishment for both Io and Jupiter, but a terrible retribution for Io. She has lost her person, her identity, trapped within an alien form, and trapped again, as even the cow itself is captive, and Juno creates an everlasting, all-seeing jailer to secure her rival. She charges her henchman Argus, the god with a hundred eyes, to keep watch over her captive.
Ovid again, describing the situation:
Whichever way he stood he looked at Io,
Io before his eyes behind his back!
By day he let her graze, but when the sun
Sank down beneath the earth he stabled her
And tied - for shame! - a halter round her neck.
She browsed on leaves of trees and bitter weeds,
And for her bed, poor thing, lay on the ground,
Not always grassy, and drank the muddy streams;
And when, to plead with Argus, she would try
To stretch her arms, she had no arms to stretch.
Would she complain, a moo came to her throat,
A startling sound - her own voice frightened her.
She reached her father's river and the banks
Where often she had played and, in the water,
Mirrored she saw her muzzle and her horns,
And fled in terror from the self she saw.
Eventually Jupiter could no longer bear the terrible and continuing fate of his lover and he, in turn, hatched a deadly plan. He summoned his son Mercury and instructed him to come upon Argus disguised as a shepherd and to beguile him and to lull each of those hundred eyes into sleep by softly playing to him his pipes of reed.
So Mercury found Argus and played to him and continued to seduce him with a story, as to how those enchanting reed pipes had first been made. As often the case in the myths, it is a story within a story and yet another of ruthless amorous pursuit and profound consequence. This is the story that Mercury told to Argus:
Francois Boucher. 'Pan and Syrinx', 1759. National Gallery, London.
Living in Arcady was a naiad, a water nymph, (thus a mortal) called Syrinx. She had remained chaste even though she inhabited those places of river and fertile wooded valley, of thick and rich foliage, in which lurked lusting gods and satyrs.
Then along comes Pan, stomping through the undergrowth. Pan - hairy, horned, half the figure of a man, but below the waist, a goat; a god of the elemental, of the earthly sexual, of fertility and of Bacchanalian pleasures. Not the sort of creature that a pretty young virgin nymph would wish to bump into in a thicket. So Syrinx is not pleased to see him. Pan though is completely delighted. She flees with he in hot pursuit. She runs until she finds her way barred by a stream and there, desperately begs her water nymph sisters to save her. In Boucher's painting she is shown with one of them. And rather than be ravished by Pan she sacrifices her body, her form, her very existence and is changed into a more elemental part of nature, she is transformed into water reeds.
In Francois Boucher's painting of 1759, 'Pan and Syrinx', she lies next to her sister, in the stream, as Pan reaches out in the moment before her transformation.
In the end, all that Pan could clutch were just the water reeds and he sighed and as a breath of wind vibrated through their hollow stems, the reeds musically sighed too and Pan, left only with reeds, picked them and placed different lengths together and called this new instrument of music a Syrinx after the nymph who was now changed into just a wistful evocation.
"You and I shall stay in unison", said Pan.
Arnold Bocklin. 'Spring Evening', 1879. Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.
The Swiss Romantic Symbolist Arnold Bocklin made many paintings of Pan. Bocklin, who was active during the second half of the 19th Century, stayed for a period in Italy and was influenced by the Classical and Renaissance artists and sculptors, but he was also part of a German Romanticism that had climaxed in the work of Friedrich, and a pantheistic tradition that in Friedrich's work was Christian, but for Bocklin becomes a much more primitive affair. (This painting is titled 'A Spring Evening').
By now the watcher and jailer Argus, the spy of Juno, full of Mercury's story and lulled by his music had let every one of his hundred eyelids drop and he slept and knew not the danger to himself as Mercury took his chance and with his sword cut off the head of Argus and threw it from the cliff on which they sat.
Argus lay dead, (says Ovid), so many eyes, so bright
Quenched, and all hundred shrouded in one night.
Juno later retrieved the eyes and placed them amongst the feathers of the bird that signifies her, the peacock. So that's how the peacock got its distinctive plumage, though yet to be so adorned in Lastman's painting. (Lastman worked in Amsterdam in the early 1600s. Rembrandt was one of his pupils).
This was still not the end of Io's suffering as a freshly enraged Juno set a Fury, a demon of the underworld, upon her, sending her fleeing in terror - "a cowering fugitive through all the world". Again, eventually, Jupiter could bear no more of Io's suffering and pleaded with Juno to relent, swearing that Io would never again be a threat to their marriage.
This time Juno did relent and Io metamorphed, returning to her original form, a beautiful woman again, yet one who, at least for a while, preferred not to use her voice, fearing that if she tried to speak there would instead be heard, just a moo.
Io later had better fortune and was herself made a goddess.
In order to seduce Europa, who in Ovid's version is the daughter of the King at Sidon, Jupiter transformed himself into a lovely soft, frolicking, white bull.
Guido Reni. 'The Rape of Europa', 1637-9. National Gallery, London.
He lay down before Europa on a beach and she could not resist but to climb upon his great broad back, at which he walked into the sea, further and further, till he was swimming and, quite out of her depth, all Europa could do was fearfully gaze back at the receding coast line as Jupiter swam her off to the Island of Crete. She later bore him three sons.
There are some interesting contrasts in the artistic interpretation of this event. For example, in Guido Reni's picture painted around 1640 as a commission from the King of Poland, Europa looks as if she is cruising the waves on an unusual kind of day trip. It reflects a somewhat sweeter vision that could ease itself in, post-Renaissance.
But Titian's earlier version of the event is one of tumultuous abduction, indeed the 'Rape of Europa', as the subject is usually called.
Titian. 'The Rape of Europa', C1550. Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston.
The gusts of Europa's distress billow around her figure. Even the little cupids above look blown around by the force of the event. The colours and the treatment of the sky express both Jupiter's passion and Europa's panic.
Jupiter's attentions could stray to a male youth too. Transforming himself into an eagle he swept the beautiful Gannymede up to Olympus to be his cup-bearer, with all its consequent symbolism. The 16th Century Venetian Mazza's 'Rape of Gannymede' is one version of the scene.
Titian. 'The Rape of Ganymede', about 1575. National Gallery, London.
Jupiter disguised himself as a shower of gold coins in order to seduce Danae. This is Titian's version.
Titian. 'Danae', 1553-54. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Jupiter's most aesthetic and sensual transformation was as a swan and in this guise he made love to Leda, the daughter of Thestius, the King of Aetolia.
Peter Paul Rubens. 'Leda and the Swan'. Gemaldegalerie, Dresden.
Artists have had a very nice time with this subject and it is a Jupiter escapade that is never known with the prefix - 'The Rape of......'. Leda and the swan are usually both willing and fully committed. It is an event that has stimulated several notable versions. The Rubens copy of a lost Michelangelo shows a powerfully built Leda in full session with the swan.
But again it is Correggio who paints the most sensitively sensual version.
Correggio. 'Leda and the Swan', 1531-32. Gemaldegalerie, Berlin.
Though at first glance the picture may appear to show an orgy with swans, it is most likely that it represents three different moments. On the far right of the picture, in the water, the swan arrives; in the centre is the consummation; and just to the right of that Leda, now getting dressed, looks up smiling as the swan flies off.
Perhaps it would have been easier for some if the scene had been so formulaic as a rape. The warm and unbridled eroticism of Correggio's painting so incensed Louis, the son of Philippe duc d'Orleans, who owned the picture, that he attacked and completely destroyed the head of Leda. It had to be restored. It is an interesting thing too that he went for the face.
Religion serves as a source of provision and structure for the moral sense. It's God or gods are supreme beings whose prophets and teachers spread messages of virtuous actions conceived through the qualities of perfection of their particular deity. In such a context the gods of classical antiquity appear with a considerable incongruity. In fact, rather than the highest refinements of human potential, they seem to epitomise the basest.
They do of course have the authority to decree and to punish disobedience, but this is certainly not from the moral high-ground and is more likely to emanate from their own selfish motives. Instead of providing a mirroring for the high ideals of moral and spiritual life, they reflect the fallibilities of human relating, and the existential extremities in lives ruled by passion and desire. In matters of love they are at their most volatile - in their intensity of love for the object of desire, their jealousy and envious rage when thwarted, and their tragic sadnesses after loss.
In matters of jealousy, we have already seen how Juno literally incinerated Semele, the mother of Bacchus. Jealousy lives in the emotional family of hatred; it floods into the spaces that are emptied of love. But there is no jealousy without love, and it is the jealous destruction of the love that might have been, that creates the tragedy.
No more so than in the story of Cephalus and Procris. It was not only the male gods who would amorously hunt their human prey. Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, was smitten by the youthful mortal Cephalus and carried him off. Rubens imagined the scene in a work of 1636 - 7, 'Aurora Abducting Cephalus'. (This is an oil sketch, made on the way to producing the finished version).
Peter Paul Rubens. 'Aurora Abducting Cephalus'. About 1636-7. National Gallery, London.
But Cephalus was only just married, and far more virtuous than the goddess, he was determined to stay faithful to his wife Procris. Somewhat up against the odds though, as displayed in Poussin's painting 'Cephalus and Aurora'.
Nicolas Poussin. 'Cephalus and Aurora', 1630. National Gallery, London.
Cephalus is straining against the encircling arms of Aurora as one little Cupid holds up for him a picture of his wife, whilst another, clearly working for the other side, is in the act of disrobing the goddess. In the background the dawn sky has the flush of Aurora's frustrated passion.
In the end it is Aurora who capitulates, but the consequences are dire. The jealous goddess curses the couple, and this story describes well the viral being of jealousy, worming itself through the minds of suspicious lovers, as both Cephalus and Procris seem to become malevolently infected by Aurora's own jealousy, and cannot rest until each in turn has proved the other to be faithless, even though all their suspicions are groundless.
The tragedy culminates in the death of Procris. Obsessed with suspicion, she has hidden in the woods to spy on Cephalus on one of his hunting trips, fearing that surely, he cannot really go there just to hunt. She moves and rustles the bushes and he, thinking it the sound of a wild animal, flings his javelin.
The javelin, which had been a gift to him from Procris, was a magical weapon that could never miss its target, and Procris fell mortally wounded. The gift of love turned now by doubt and jealousy into an unfailing implement of destruction.
Piero di Cosimo. 'A Mythological Subject, a Satyr Mourning Over a Nymph', about 1495. National Gallery, London.
The work by Piero di Cosimo, painted in Florence in about 1495 does not for certain depict the Death of Procris, though it is often known by that name. The National Gallery have preferred to call it 'A Mythological Subject, A Satyr Mourning Over a Nymph'. But there is no disputing that this painting of a profound sadness, one of the most poignant works of art ever made, depicts a tragedy and in the making of this tragedy a great love has succumbed.
Piero was one of the first great painters of the imagination.
There is sadness too in the myth that describes the love affair and the embattled journey of courtship leading to the eventual and most hard won marriage of Cupid and Psyche. This too is a story of jealousy with a strong mix of its own discontented sibling, envy. Psyche in particular is to go through terrible trials. It is a tale that comes down to us in other forms as well, most notably in recent times as that of Cinderella.
Jean-Honoré Fragonard. 'Psyche Showing her Sisters her Gifts from Cupid', 1753. National Gallery, London.
As part of Cupid's courtship of Psyche, he bestows upon her the most wonderful gifts. She is showing these gifts to her sisters in a sumptuous picture by Fragonard. He painted it in 1753, incredibly at the age of twenty-one, whilst he was an art pupil in Paris. In this picture everything is stroked and cushioned in delicate Rococo finery, not only in its depictions, but in its style; an aristocratic art. These are the colours of sensuous and expensive fabrics and furnishings and they are mixed together by the artist unsparingly to create a full headyness. The skin of the women looks like perfumed icing sugar. This is not the cover of the box of chocolates, but the voluptuous contents.
It is the age of the court of Louis XV. By the end of Fragonnard's life Louis' successor Louis XVI had been executed in consequence of the French Revolution and the ensuing period of the 'The Terror' and Fragonard's fame had by then, all but disappeared. Times had indeed changed.
In the background of this picture to the viewer's left, above the sisters, the figure of Envy is raging. Psyche, naively, foolishly even, shares with her sisters the pleasures that she has derived from Cupid's gifts, whilst they, secretly, deeply resentful, fester ideas of sibling revenge.
The myths describe the power of certain feelings and they continue to exist because of their universality. This myth fits the context of Fragonard's painting of it. By the end of Fragonard's lifetime all this sumptuousness of the court had gone, the victim of its negative relation to the lack of others and the feelings of enraged injustice and murderous envy that collectively ensued.
Psyche's sisters are out to ruin her and she is a gullible and emotionally clumsy girl and falls easily prey to their plotting. Her relationship with Cupid is indeed spoiled and the two are forced apart.
Psyche's troubles by no means end there and she next has to suffer the brutality of Cupid's mother, an enraged Venus, who, already envious of Psyche's beauty, has now discovered that she is also her son's lover. Eventually an embattled and unconscious Psyche is found and rescued by Cupid.
Anthony van Dyck. 'Cupid and Psyche', 1638. Royal Collection.
This is (probably) the scene in Van Dyck's painting, 'Cupid Discovering Psyche'. The two lovers are re-united, Jupiter sanctions their wedding and Venus forgives and even does a dance for them at the celebrations.
She is a strange creature really, this Psyche; her name to be that given to represent the human soul, or in modern times the inner world of the individual, sometimes even serving science, and taken by Freud as that which will be analysed in his psychoanalysis. Quite how does this rather feckless and naive girl become a symbol and provide the nomenclature for the deeper and often more profound aspects of consciousness that give humanity its knowledge of itself and indeed, even of the divine?
Perhaps it is her very vulnerability, her mistakes, her clumsiness, the trials that she has to suffer. And perhaps too, the loss but the eventual re-finding of her true love, for the marriage of Cupid and Psyche is indeed a marriage that is eventually made in heaven. Artists and writers have been fascinated and taken up the myth of these two lovers since it was first set out by Lucius Apuleius, relatively late in AD123.
Claude Lorraine. 'The Enchanted Castle', 1664. National Gallery, London
In 1664 Claude Lorrain painted a picture that is known as 'The Enchanted Castle'. It is also a picture of Psyche, in solemn contemplation in a romantic landscape, as she sits outside the castle which is the home of Cupid. Apparently this picture influenced Keats in his writing of 'Ode to a Nightingale'.
And so, finally to the goddess of love herself, Venus or in the Greek, Aphrodite. The daughter of Jupiter and Dione, but alternatively, as portrayed here in the most recognised of all her representations, born of the foam of the sea.
Sandro Botticelli. 'The Birth of Venus', 1482-5. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
Perhaps the thing about Venus is that she can personify all the facets of erotic life, from the decorative and beguiling, often obsessed with her own beauty, through to the hard drive of enduring passion and the tragedy of loss. She can be generous in her favours and in her patronage to her favourites, but enraged and revengeful when roused by jealousy and insult.
And so she is indeed, erotic love itself. But she is not spiritual love. In the story of her birth as depicted by Botticelli she has never been a girl. She is born a woman; young, modest, gracious, but no way a child. In this birth she rises from the sea, itself the feminine, or even from the concavity of a huge scallop shell. The two winged figures on her right hand side, flowers of love scattering around them are the zephyr and his consort Chloris, themselves, symbolically, symbiotically, entwined as a loving couple. The Zephyr blows the breeze that will now waft Venus along to the island of Cyprus. On her left side a Botticelli hand-maiden rises, reaching out with a robe to cover her.
Botticelli, with his strange mix of courtliness and eroticism, paints a paradox: he shows the goddess of love, and clearly she is this, just for a moment, as a virgin.
But, most often, Venus is celebrated as a mature woman and throughout the ages, as a depiction of the object of desire, and usually, also, reclining.
Giorgione. 'Sleeping Venus' (Dresden Venus), about 1510. Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden.
Giorgione portrayed her in this way in a landscape and so, as also a pastoral scene, it can still just retain a feel of the mythological. But twenty eight years later, Titian, who had been a pupil of Giorgione, presented her more as a contemporary courtesan in her chamber, 'The Venus of Urbino'.
Titian. 'The Venus of Urbino', 1538. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
Velazquez, about a hundred years after that, at around 1650, as Venus at her toilet.
Diego Velazquez. 'The Toilet of Venus' (The Rokeby Venus), 1647. National Gallery, London.
The painting by Velazquez would have been a dangerous one for him to produce because of the disapproval at that time of the Spanish Inquisition. It survived the Inquisition intact, but not the attentions of a suffragette in 1914 who slashed it. It has been successfully repaired.
There are many of these Venuses and in this context the title is mainly one of convenience. But in the mythologies Venus serves to express the widely varied and rich emotions of sexual love, actual and sublimated. Those human experiences through which the self makes its own existential claim for a share of the purpose in the drives of biological necessity.
And it is important too that Venus is a mother, since she thus actualises one of the potential results of sexuality, but also, as she takes her eroticism into her relations with her child Cupid. This is as it is. Much sublimated in ordinary life. Far more overt amongst the gods. Cupid is often a chubby little boy, sometimes a dashing youth or young man, but we are constantly reminded of the erotic charge between the two and in the 1540 - 50 painting, 'An Allegory with Venus and Cupid', the artist Bronzino plays with his awareness of this.
Agnolo Bronzino. 'An Allegory with Venus and Cupid'. About 1545. National Gallery, London.
If this were a new work it would probably be considered shocking, but it is saved from this by its Renaissance origins. The placing of Cupid's hand is of course provocative, but the more interesting indication of the eroticism in this mother and son encounter, is in the portrayal of Cupid with the innocent head of a child but the buttocks and lower limbs of a developed youth. The split between the two is provided by Venus's arm.
The same artist, Bronzino, at around the same time, used a similar composition in a much more traditional rendering of a mother and child, 'Madonna and Child with the Baptist and St Anne or Elizabeth'.
Agnolo Bronzino. 'Madonna and Child with the Baptist and St Anne or Elizabeth', about 1540. National Gallery, London.
One treatment is sacred, the other quite profane.
Clearly the holy Virgin and child were now having to make at least a little room for the pagan goddess and her own son.
Venus was of course a lover of grown men too and one of her most passionate loves was for the mortal Adonis. Their relationship has been a favourite subject for artists, often focussing on the pivotal moment at which her immortality and his mortality will exclude each from the other forever more.
Workshop of Titian. 'Venus and Adonis', 1554. National Gallery, London.
Overly confident and against the distressed warnings of Venus, the beautiful Adonis goes hunting and will receive a deadly wound from a wild boar. Perhaps the couple might have faired better if Cupid, there in the background, in the version by the Studio of Titian, had not fallen asleep.
Adonis, the mortal, will die, but Venus will of course live on as the gods must and as they do for us today in the mythologies that have become timeless. The myths pass through the generations, no longer as religion, but as universal truths, and the gods must remain immortal as they enact in the most human of ways passions and conflicts, as well as the lesser foibles that characterise mankind, and their own immortality is merely an expression of that lasting characteristic of mankind in relation to living and loving, its resistance to change. Perpetual emotions, lived out by transitory beings.
And so it is appropriate that the mid-18th Century painting by the master of Italian Rococo, Tiepelo, contains both the figures of Venus and Time.
Giovanni Battista Tiepelo. 'An Allegory with Venus and Time', 1754-8. National Gallery, London.
The goddess of love, poised upon a cloud, with doves, beak within beak in mating ritual above her, and her own child Cupid hovering nearby with a quiver full of arrows, gracefully bestows upon Time a child. Born of timeless desire and the act of love, into mortality. Time sets down his scythe, his symbol of the inevitable passing of the seasons and the years, to receive the human child from the goddess. Thus divinity recedes, yet will perhaps remain in the mortal life as aspiration, a love of beauty in all its manifestations, and movement in the never-ending libidinal flow.
But so as to descend now from the heights of Olympus it may be helpful to contemplate a cooler kind of image from a Northern European artist, the German Lucas Cranach - 'Cupid Complaining to Venus'.
Lucas Cranach the elder. 'Cupid Complaining to Venus', about 1525. National Gallery, London.
In Cranach's typically quirky painting, a coquettish looking Venus, wearing nothing but a fashionable hat, listens as Cupid complains to her that he is being attacked and stung by the bees. The reason - he has had his hand in the proverbial honey-pot and now must take the consequences.
And Venus seems quite content for events to teach her small son a lesson - That perhaps, even for a god, it is not always so easy, after all, to take all.
I will be giving the AGIP Annual Lecture on Saturday 17th November 2018 at 2.30pm. The Title is 'Hysteria, Hypnotism and Art of the Fin de Siecle: The Raising of the Unconscious'.Venue is The London Resource Centre, 356 Holloway Road, London N7 6PA. Tickets at £40 will be available at the door. No need to book. The content of the lecture draws considerably on the background environment of my 'The Strange Case of Madeleine Seguin' novel.
I was very happy to present a lecture in July (2017) to AGIP in Archway, North London.This was particularly about the malady of 'hysteria' that was prevalent in the late 1800s and early 1900s and a popular diagnosis. I drew substantially from the research for my 'Madeleine' novel and the lecture contained much about the culture around 'hysteria', connecting it to the work of the Symbolist writers and artists of the time, whose imagery also features strongly in the lecture.
I was very happy to give a lecture on Symbolist Art to the Lansdowne Club, Berkeley Square, London in November (2017). This was a private function, for members only, but I am very ready to speak about this subject to any interested groups or societies. Just E-mail me :email@example.com
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